Annotated Bibliography

Final Project

Annotated Bibliography


Gorski, Paul C. (2009). “Insisting on Digital Equity Reframing the Dominant Discourse on Multicultural Education and Technology” Urban Education. Vol. 44 No. 3.

Gorski discusses the ways that multicultural education is often brushed over when it comes to issues of digital of equity, and taken at a superficial level instead of truly addressing the ways different students have very different access and relationships with technology. He claims that all media education must be undergirded by critical thinking about inequality, refuting the idea that the Internet is an inherently equalizing and all-accessible resource. He analyzes statistics on discrepancies in the availability of technology in schools primarily serving white students and schools primarily serving students of color, as well as access for students with disabilities, females vs. males, and students of different socioeconomic status. These kinds of figures will help my understanding of my topic and how to think critically about the way I represent digital inequality.

Herold, Benjamin. (2107). “Poor Students Face Digital Divide in How Teachers Learn to Use Tech.” Technology Counts 2017. Vol. 36, Issue 35, pp. 5-6, 8-11.

This article focuses specifically on the inequality in technology training for under-resourced schools and their more privileged counterparts. Training includes both media literacy for students and professional development for teachers on how to effectively use digital media and technology in their classrooms. This article is important to my research because it is critical to consider not just physical access to things like computers and broadband, but the ability to use those resources. A student may theoretically have access to the Internet, even at the school or at a public library, but if they do not have the training or media literacy to effectively use it, they are still at a disadvantage. The same is true of teachers–without the professional media training, they cannot effectively incorporate media into their curriculum in a meaningful way.

Kiss, Marissa, Lynn, Randy & Witte James. “The Internet and social inequalities in the U.S.”   The Digital Divide, edited by Massimo Ragnedda and Glenn W. Muschert. Routledge,  2013, pp. 67-84.

Kiss, Lynn, and Witte examine the digital divide from the point of view of cultural sociology. This means looking not just at the data or numbers, but considering how patterns of human behavior and different culture affect Internet and technology usage. They analyze the differences in lifestyles, communities, and Internet usage patterns of culturally different groups of people. Both social class and race can have a profound impact on what technology a person accesses and how they use it. Understanding these cultural perspectives can help us understand the way that different children are likely to interact with different media and technology in their school and classroom.

Monroe, Barbara. Crossing the Digital Divide: Race, Writing, and Technology in the Classroom. New York, Teachers College Press, 2004.

Monroe’s work focuses primarily on what she calls “contrastive rhetoric and alternative discourses,” around media literacy, essentially, looking at issues we see every day from different perspectives and analyzing the points of view that are often overlooked, specifically, the ways students of color interact with technology and the Internet in schools. She examines the way that minority students, including those of low socioeconomic status and those for whom English is not the first language, are often left behind when it comes to access to technology outside of school. Her analysis is hopeful that media does have the potential to be a positive resource for all students, regardless of their differences, but contends that we must acknowledge the present inequities before this potential can be realized.

Wessels, Bridgette. “The reproduction and reconfiguration of inequality: Differentiation and class, status, and power in the dynamics of digital divides.” The Digital Divide, edited by Massimo Ragnedda and Glenn W. Muschert. Routledge, 2013, pp. 17-28.

This article is important for contextualizing the digital divide within our society. It places the conversation about inequalities in digital media and technology within the framework of capitalism, examining these inequalities both within the United States and in a global context. This kind of background knowledge will help me write my essay from a more well-rounded, critical viewpoint. It also analyzes the way that the digital divide has evolved with the rapid changes in technology, and with the increased globalism of the world. The interactions of the economy and technology have critical impacts on the way media had disseminated, and the way it has entered classrooms. It is very important that class and capitalism are considered when we think about the ways that institutions and students interact with digital media and technology.

Without a Net: The Digital Divide in America. Directed by Rory Kennedy, Moxie Firecracker Films, 2017.

This is a film that explores the digital divide specifically within public schools. Public schools see some of the greatest inequality in technology, as they are more often under-resourced and serving underprivileged students. It brings together the issues of access, media literacy, and teacher training to present a holistic view of the way that technology-related inequalities play out within schools. I believe this source will be helpful as it provides a visual representation of the issues I will be discussing in my paper. It also includes personal narratives and stories from students and teachers directly affected by this digital divide.



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